A species of deer found in the Arctic tundra and adjacent boreal forests of Greenland, Scandinavia, Russia, Alaska, and Canada. Reindeer have been domesticated in Europe. Large males can stand more than 3.9 feet tall at the shoulder and exceed 550 pounds in weight; females are slightly smaller. Reindeer have deeply cloven hoofs so the feet can spread on snow or soft ground; they are also good swimmers. Colour varies from whitish in winter to brown in summer. Antlers with up to 44 points can grow to 1.4 metres long in males; this is the only deer species in which females also have antlers. Nearly 3 million domestic reindeer live in northern Europe. They are important to traditional herders such as the Lapps of Scandinavia and Russia, who exploit them as pack and draft animals and for meat, milk, and hides.
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