A major industrial city and seaport of eastern Scotland. Dundee is the fourth largest city of Scotland by population. About 40 miles north of Edinburgh, it is situated on the northern bank of the North Sea inlet known as the Firth of Tay. Dundee’s frontage on the Tay exceeds 8 miles. The earliest mention of the town dates from the late 12th century, when it was designated a royal town. The next centuries saw repeated sackings of the town and much bloodshed at the hands of the English. Dundee was created a city in 1892. Fishing was important in Dundee from early times, and one of Scotland’s largest whaling fleets came to be based there. Dundee emerged as a world center for jute manufacturing, and the city grew rapidly. Textiles are still produced, but since World War II large numbers of workers have been employed in new light manufactures. The city is also known for its production of confectionery and preserves, particularly marmalade. Dundee has become a prominent educational center, specially in information technology and biotechnology R&D. Few historic buildings have survived the city’s turbulent past. The City Churches remain as a focal point in the modern glass-and-concrete city center. The University of Dundee dates to 1881. Other educational institutions include the University of Abertay Dundee and Dundee International College.
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