The capital city of Scotland, located in southeastern Scotland with its center near the southern shore of the Firth of Forth, an arm of the North Sea. It lies within the historic county of Midlothian. Physically, Edinburgh is a city of sombre theatricality, with much of this quality deriving from its setting among crags and hills and from its tall buildings and spires of dark stone. Edinburgh has been a military stronghold, the capital of an independent country, and a center of intellectual activity. Although it has repeatedly experienced the vicissitudes of fortune, the city has always renewed itself. Today it is the seat of the Scottish Parliament and the Scottish Executive, and it remains a major center for finance, law, tourism, education, and cultural affairs.
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