Glasgow is Scotland’s largest city, occupying much of the lower Clyde valley. Shipyards and engineering industries line the Clyde below the city center. Glasgow’s manufactures include textiles, food and beverages, tobacco, and chemicals. Engineering and printing are also important in the economy. The city has a number of growing service activities, including telecommunications and software development. Modern business and industrial estates house many small firms, and others have moved to Glasgow’s new towns. Tourism has also increased in importance. The city is a notable education center, led by the University of Glasgow (founded 1451). The University of Strathclyde was founded in 1796 as Anderson’s Institution. Glasgow Caledonian University, founded in 1875, gained university status in 1993. Few ancient buildings have survived the industrial era, apart from the cathedral and Provand’s Lordship (1471), Glasgow’s oldest house, but the historic district known as Glasgow Cross preserves buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries, including the Scottish Opera, the Scottish Ballet, the Royal Scottish National Orchestra, and Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum. The Glasgow Science Centre explores the effect of science and technology on society and includes the Glasgow Tower, a 459-foot high tower which is the tallest freestanding structure in Scotland and the only structure of its height in the world that revolves 360 degrees from its base.
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