New York covers 53,013 sq mi; its capital is Albany. The Hudson, St. Lawrence, Delaware, and Niagara rivers all form parts of its boundaries. The Adirondack Mountains are in the northeast; the Catskills are in the east. Before European colonization, Algonquins and Iroquois inhabited the area. In 1524 Giovanni Verrazzano visited New York Bay. The 1609 explorations of Henry Hudson and Samuel de Champlain led to settlement. In 1664 the Dutch colony, New Amsterdam, led by Peter Stuyvesant, surrendered to the British and was renamed New York. The French and Indian War resulted in skirmishes in northern and central New York; its conclusion confirmed English dominance in the region. In the American Revolution, it was the scene of many battles, including those of Ticonderoga and Saratoga, and of Benedict Arnold's treason at West Point. New York adopted the first state constitution (1777). The capital moved from New York City to Albany in 1797. The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 spurred development of the western part of the state. In the 19th century the growing influence in New York City of Tammany Hall caused tension between the city and the state. The economy was once based largely on manufacturing in cities, including Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. It is now dominated by service industries, concentrated in New York City.
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